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Racial discrimination was widespread throughout Atlantic Canada during the 18th century because slavery was based on race and skin colour and therefore only black and Aboriginal people could be enslaved. The racism that emerged in Atlantic Canada had a long gestation and cultural context. The French, British, and Portuguese branded their slaves with a hot iron on the shoulder, the stomach, or the fat part of the arm, much like cattle or sheep. Unlike their Caucasian contemporaries, most African Canadians know about slavery.
Despite the efforts of many artists, novelists, and historians, slavery is still not thought by most Canadians to be an integral part of their collective experience. A large part of the reason for this is the entrenchment of the liberal principle of the development of individual or human rights that emerged throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, which has taken full root in much of the western world, and Canada is no exception to this trend.
Perhaps more important, the country also takes great pride in being a multicultural nation that welcomes people of all races and creeds. The adoption of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in the Canadian constitution has reinforced the commitment to human rights, and Canada had opened its borders to refugees from all over the world.
Offering safe haven to refugees has a long history in the territory that became Canada, especially since fugitive slaves came to the country from the United States after the end of the War of Independence, after the end of the War ofand as part of the Underground Railroad later in the 19th century. Given this history of providing asylum to slaves and other refugees — and the emphasis within Canada on individual rights — the study of slavery in Canada goes against the dominant image of Canada as a land of freedom. Slavery was introduced into Nova Scotia by the British after the fall of Port Royal Annapolis Royal inand grew after the founding of Halifax in More slaves came with the immigration of the New England Planters in and the Loyalist migration ofso that there were at least 2, slaves throughout mainland Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.
In addition, there were slaves in Cape Breton from to During the American Revolutionary Warblack slaves in the American colonies were offered refuge by the British if Sex black lady in Annapolis Royal fl left their rebel owners. Loyalists who emigrated to Nova Scotia also took their slaves so that — according to one list — 1, black people, or 34 per cent of the total black emigrants, remained slaves in Nova Scotia. Slave owners generally preferred the less offensive descriptions of servant, negro, black and a variety of other terms to the word slave, reflecting a reluctance and perhaps a slight embarrassment to call a slave a slave.
During the late 18th century practically every county in mainland Nova Scotia had slaves, and this story remains to be told. As a result, the study of regional slavery is an exercise in documenting the essential contours of the institution before we can initiate more nuanced investigations. The four papers that follow, summaries of larger works, begin to address this call for more study of slavery in the region.
Their chosen fields of study are all multidisciplinary. In this paper McCarthy takes a courageous stand and offers the view from a woman of African descent growing up in white, rural New Brunswick. People of African descent in Canada have always struggled to find a voice, a compass point, in the broader narrative of Canadian history.
You know you exist, your body is evidence, but nothing of you exists in this wider world.
Students and teachers of non-European literatures, he reminds us, must be aware of the politics of what they study. The topics of slavery, colonialism, and racism in post-colonial societies have too often been confined to the margins, relegated to secondary positions in the curricula. Historians often interpret the past as if it were a dead reality, having little to do with present-day life. There are many people, however, in Atlantic Canada and beyond for whom the origins and persistence of racism represent a daily reality and who thus do not have the luxury of taking a detached view of this element of the past.
The second and third contributions in the forum are by two recent PhD graduates in archaeology. Catherine Cottreau-Robins and Heather MacLeod-Leslie provide new insights for the study of slavery in Nova Scotia through their archaeological investigations. Since the overwhelming majority of slaves were illiterate, they left few narratives or written records of their identity.
Archaeology provides an open window on slave life and much potential for further investigation of how slaves lived in Nova Scotia. Employing the investigative, scientific techniques of modern archaeology, she examines the artifacts of everyday slave life while also calling upon other disciplines such as architecture and cultural geography to explore the architectural remains and landscape features.
The study of the lives of the slaves is much like looking through the wrong end of a telescope. As the evidence is gathered, however, the telescope is turned around and the image becomes larger and clearer. Children who had become separated from their parents were particularly vulnerable because they had no guardians to protect them from re-enslavement by their alleged white owners. There were artifacts out of a total of in the hut that date to the late 18th century but no particular African features were recorded among the artifacts, at least in comparison to American researchers excavating similar slave Sex black lady in Annapolis Royal fl in the United States.
Drawing upon African diaspora archaeology conducted outside of Atlantic Canada, MacLeod-Leslie looked for specific material cultural items in certain locations that were characteristic of African diasporic cultural behaviours in other landscapes.
These items, usually found in the northeast corner of rooms or in various structures, were often hidden in the walls as they were built or renovated. The objects had special powers because they could be used to conjure or invoke spiritual powers, and they only make scholarly sense when interpreted from an Africentric perspective.
In the same manner, MacLeod-Leslie also calls upon Parks Canada to interpret the archaeological evidence excavated at Louisbourg from an Africentric perspective because there had been more than slaves living in the town. Louisbourg has the largest collection of artifacts in the world for an 18th century town — more than 5.
Moreover, there were at least two houses that were occupied by slaves. Slavery relied on force, and thus any history of slavery must include a discussion of power, violence, and forced labour. The relationship between master and slave was inherently one-sided, especially when it involved white male owners and black female slaves. As many as 36 of the 70 women slaves gave birth to a total of 48 illegitimate children.
Enslaved women also had the potential to use sex in a strategic sense and thereby gain benefits for their children and themselves. Moreover, their languages and African religious practices, together with their music, dance, and general cultural background, formed a vital part of their identity and played a key role in their resistance Sex black lady in Annapolis Royal fl white oppression. Talented individuals, the enslaved people had multiple life skills as mothers, caregivers, cooks, entrepreneurs, fishermen, courageous defenders, wood cutters, gardeners, seamstresses, musicians, makers of soap, and preserves.
These four papers are similar because they deal with some aspect of slavery and freedom in the African diaspora of the Atlantic region. And yet, at the same time, the papers are all different. Mary Louise McCarthy presents a personal view of life from the background of a mixed-race identity. Her introspective paper concentrates primarily on the implications of slavery and race within a New Brunswick historical context down to the present-day within her own family. For their part, Catherine Cottreau-Robins and Heather MacLeod-Leslie examine people of African descent from an archaeological perspective; but each adopts a different approach and research methodology.
Finally, my own paper is strictly historical as it relies on documentary evidence from 18th- century Cape Breton. Kenneth J. I have been able to identify enslaved persons in Cape Breton from to See T. Deborah M. Sylvia D. Edward W. APA Donovan, K. Acadiensis43 1— Acadiensis 43, no.Sex black lady in Annapolis Royal fl
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